|We present a global and summarized vision of the activities that are been developed at this moment in the area of Astronomy in the region of Central America, at professional and amateur level. We expose with clarity the necessity to continue the efforts for the development of this science in our countries with the help of supporting programs like the European project ALFA, northamerican project TWAN and the TAD program . We exhalt the work of the amateur astronomers whose valuable aid can be used for a fast establishment of the bases on which Astronomy can lean.|
In order to have a solid base to judge the possible development of Astronomy in Central America in the next 10 years, we must first know the present reality of this science in our region and our relation with the developed countries that support this branch of knowledge. This report is not exhaustive and it only has as a modest aim to present a global view of the current situation of Astronomy in Central America.
We already know all that history teaches about the raise of Astronomy and why it played an important role in the development of the economy, the culture and the knowledge of our civilization! We already know that Astronomy has given, and still is giving, its fruits and that the developed countries have known how to exploit such fruits... but, What about the underdeveloped countries? In what benefits Astronomy to Central America? Is this relevant for the development of the countries of the region? The answer is in the FUTURE: we must see WHAT are the developed countries doing concerning Astronomy? Then, we must reflect on HOW are we (the not-developed countries) going to prepare before such challenges? Answer: with preparation, qualification, education, training! Otherwise we will continue to be the ever retarded, ignorants, poor people, with low cultural and social levels, the "cheap manual labor people" we have been since remote times... our children will continue to be the "3rd category employees" in charge of manual labors... we will continue to be the eternal dependents on the development reached by others... Perhaps as individual countries we cannot aspire to reach great goals, but if a union for a cooperative support settles down, acceptable results can be obtained faster... The intrinsic nature of Astronomy forces us to use very sophisticated and advanced technologies [communications satellites, opto-electronics devices, computer networks , Internet, etc.], which is an advantage since it allows us to train scientists in the knowledge and usage of such technologies, which are applicable in ALL the areas of theoretical and practical work. Some of the benefits will revert to our countries in the form of education, which allows as well to transmit such knowledge to others and to train more professionals!
Besides, WE ARE NOT ALONE! ... Aid Programs from developed countries towards the Central America region exist... the support is real ... advantage of this can be taken and can be exploited to the maximum. This opens the doors to many opportunities. First Astronomy, and soon other areas of science and technology. The creation of an advanced scientific center [a radio telescope, for example] in, at least, 1 Central American country can open the doors towards more investment from other developed countries! This type of investment soon paves the way to another type of investments, more oriented to the financial areas! Why foreign investors are cautious when investing in underdeveloped countries? Precisely due to the subdevelopment!... When these investors observe that reliable people, such as the scientists of developed countries, invest in science in our region, that will send a message to them that Central America is "stable" and that the corruption and the bad governmental managements have diminished to such a degree that is relatively safe to canalize investments toward these countries; now they are safer to invest... are good candidates to invest! It's a common sense question: an investor will prefer to invest in a country whose level of intelligence and knowledge is high; education provides the knowledge which help to develop intelligence, intelligence attracts more intelligence, and an investor will trust his money to intelligent people that have knowledge, for this will cause that their investments will be used effectively, making him gain more money!...
Some think that Astronomy in Central America cannot be done. Nevertheless, the reality is different. We already have many things that we didn't have before: specialized bookstores, powerful computer networks, the Internet, scientific collaboration with other astronomers of developed countries, the support to obtain postgrades in the area of Astronomy also exist, also exist economic support for trips to conferences and are not difficult to obtain; videoconferences also exist [http://cuevano.astro.ugto.mx/~ala/numeros/5/node20.html] ... There are support of international organizations dedicated to the development of this science in underdeveloped countries, etc. Then, why not give more support to those who want to work for the development of this science? Astronomy can be used too as a mean to make contact with the general public. The fascination by the aspects and characteristics of outer space is a powerful magnet that can attract people of diverse areas; such situation must be exploited to put public in contact with science in general. The own nature of Astronomy forces us to depend on high technology and, therefore, it can be raised an interaction between small and medium industries in areas like the electronics, optics, precision engineering , etc. High level research can be done in Astronomy using the immense astronomical data bases  that exist in Internet. It is enough to buy a suitable processing software to make the work, and even there are many free softwares in this network that are used for the data mining and analysis. There is no longer any excuse!
Recently, a amazing effort is being made to continue with the program
of established development. In 2001, it was carried out the VI CENTRAL
AMERICAN COURSE OF ASTRONOMY and ASTROPHYSICS[CURCAA ] and the
VI Meeting of the ASSEMBLY OF CENTRALAMERICA ASTRONOMERS and ASTROPHYSICIST
[AAAC] in Costa Rica [http://www.astro.unah.hondunet.net/Poacs-actCA.html,
]. The current president of the AAAC is the astrophysicist Dr. Jorge Pãez(Costa Rica). The following
course, in 2002, will be held possibly in Honduras. In the AAAC meeting the
possibilities for fellowships to get a MSc degree in Costa Rica, Honduras
and Mexico and a PhD in Costa Rica and Mexico were discussed;
also were discussed the possibility of the integration of the Central American
Network [CAN] and the realization in this way research projects, in collaboration
with other centers, and the possibility that the Irazú Volcano, in
Costa Rica, could be the place for the future Astronomical Solar Observatory.
The event was sponsored by the International Astronomical Union [IAU],
the European Space Agency [ESA], the O.E.A.
The Technical Aspect
The area of Astronomy and Astrophysics has been developing in Central American countries to a growing rate as time pass. The strong impulse Astronomy and Astrophysics are receiving at the Central American level is due thanks to several development programs [R&D]:
The ALFA program born thanks to an initiative of economic, scientific and technological cooperation between the European Community and the countries of Latin America , with the intention of improving the potential of growth of our region. This program arised from the experience of the European Community in the accomplishment of cooperation networks of similar nature ( ERASMUS, MED-CAMPUS, TEMPUS, COMETT ). ALFA tries to help to eliminate the existing deficiencies and to surpass the inequalities and imbalances between the countries of both regions, improving the academic, scientific and technological potential of the less developed countries. Also it is pursued to develop the academic cooperation by means of superior education institution networks (Universities and Research centers) of Europe and Latin America, as much at educative level as at level of development of joint investigations. The Central American countries that belong to this pogram accorded to implement an Agreement of Cooperation for the Formation of Astronomers and Astrophisicists for the Central American Isthmus . The european coordinator for this project was Dr Jaime Zamorano , of the Department of Astronomy, Physical Faculty of Sciences, Complutensian University of Madrid. Unfortunately, the required financial support to impulse this project was not obtained, and one of the reason why this so necessary economic support was not granted was that the necessary capable human resources did not exist and there was not any guarantee that the investment would be productive. This is another reason why we must make an effort to create such human resources in the Astronomy area! [www.ucm.es/info/vicrint/UCM/International.htm , www.ucm.es/info/Astrof/jaz.html ].
The development in the Central American countries has been the following
Costa Rica: is the more advanced country in this area. The University of Costa Rica already has within its study programs the subject of Astronomy and Astrophysics, (http://www.efis.ucr.ac.cr/, http://www.efis.ucr.ac.cr/astrofisica/index.html,
http://www.efis.ucr.ac.cr/astrofisica/Ines_Host/ciencia/ciencia_index.html) and has native professional astrophisicists (graduated in Germany) developing thier science to an excellent level. At this moment exists a program of MSc and PhD in Astrophysics [Dr rer. nat Jorge Páez P., firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, program director] that offers to the students the opportunity to pursue a carrer in this area, with the support of the Universities of Postdam and Dresde, Germany. Also a project of international research exist at a very good level, where these astrophisicists work with the gathered data of the IUE- International Ultraviolet Explore satellite, first sent observatory of ultraviolet radiation, a project of ESA /NASA/UK [with control centers at the Station of Satellite Tracking of ESA, Villafranca, Spain, and at the Goddard Space Flights Center of NASA, Maryland, United States. With the IUE observations were made with the possibility of reacting quickly to discovered astronomical events on the march, and of changing the course of the mission according to the new discoveries. Among the investigations made with the IUE are: black hole in galaxy 3C390.3; molecules of cometari nuclei, comets near the Sun; stellar winds; evolution of SuperNova SN 1987A and the identification of the star that underwent the explosion; the supergiant Sk-69 202; more than 110,000 spectra obtained from 11,000 different objects, etc. Astronomical data are obtained to analyze it through the INES: IUE Newly Extracted Spectra [distribution system of data and astronomical archives], of the European Space Agency [ESA]. INES contains the complete set of data obtained throughout 18,7 years of ultraviolet spectroscopy from the space with the IUE satellite. All the data are in a format that allows the scientific analysis in a direct way, with no need of a special reduction of such.
In 1992, in this country took place the II Workshop of the United Nations and the European Space Agency on Basic Space Science , in which Costa Rica contributed enormously with planetary atmosphere studies, presenting works such as: variations of Earth's magnetic field, in the termperature of the air and change in the winds, changes of the solar irradiance and atmospheric turbulence during the Total Solar Eclipse of Costa Rica, July 11, 1991 [works that we can take as examples of what we can make as research works in our respective countries contributing in this way to Astronomy]. The production and the scientific quality of these astrophisicists can be verified in the Proceedings of the II United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop, Bogota, Colombia .
The National Autonomous University of Honduras
through Dr Ferrufino Concepción, Postgrade director, and Dra. Maria Cristina Pineda d e Carías , Director
of the Observatory of Astronomy of Honduras and
former president of the Assembly of Astronomers and Astrophisicists of
Central America [AAAC], is already offering a
program of MSc in Astronomy [http://www.astro.unah.hondunet.net].
In addition, this University served as the Coordination Center of the activities
of the ALFA program. This initiative already has its fruits: Development
and Implementation of the Project of the Astronomical Observatory of
Suyapa for Central America [OACS] [ with a telescope Meade
LX200 0.4m donated by the University of Madrid];
the Assembly of Astronomers and (professional) Astrophisicists
of Central America [AAAC] and the Central American
Course of Astronomers and Astrophisicists [CURCAA]
were created; the program for Astronomers and Astrophisicists formation
for the Central American Isthmus (FAAIC) was developed
and were made several visits to Universities of Central America to present
them this project, for thus to settle down agreements of international
cooperation . The UNAH asks for support to the Central American
universities so that all together would conform the Network of International
photos, courtesy of Prof. Eduardo Sáenz.]
At Honduras, from June 16 to 20, 1997, took place the VII United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop on BASIC Space Science: Small Astronomical Telescopes and Satellites in Education and Research  , to which I had the honor to attend as a committee member of the Physics dept. of the University of Panama, along with Prof. Héctor Castillo, Prof. Eduardo Sáenz , and Prof. Jorge Suárez , and also as a representative of the Panamanian Association of Amateur Astronomers, APAA. It was in this event where we established contact with Dra. Julieta Fierro [famous Mexican astronomer, former president of the Eduacation section of the International Astronomical Union - IUA, http://yan.open.ac.uk/IAU46/officers.html ], Dr Armando Arellano Ferro [Mexico], Dr Walter Fernandez [Costa Rica], Dr J. Paez [Costa Rica], Dr Javier Bonatti [Costa Rica], Dr Hans J. Haubold [Austria], Dr Gustavo Ponce [Guatemala], Dra. María Crisitana Pineda [Honduras], Dr Alan Batten [Canada] and others. During the event it was inaugurated the first and the only professional observatory of Astronomy in the region, the Suyapa Astronomical Observatory for Central America, in Tegucigalpa, under the auspice of the UNAH. The event was inaugurated by the president of Honduras, Carlos Roberto Queen Idiaquez, and by representatives of the United Nations, the European Space Agency and the Planetary Society. Attended more than 80 participants, between astronomers and space scientists of 28 countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, Cuba, Colombia, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Panama, Poland, Slovakian Republic, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tunez, United States, Uruguay, and Zambia. Subjects like the development of an international and regional cooperation in basic space science were treated and on HOW Central America could participate in projects such as: observation of variable stars and Near Earth Objects [NEOs]. These workshops had between their objectives to help for the development of Astronomy at a world-wide level. Examples of support are: the possibility of mounting a radio telescope in Colombia; the government of Japan, along with astronomers of the National Observatory of Japan offered their aid for the establishment of astronomical facilities in the developing countries!
In 1997, April 21, an astronomy course was given in
Guatemala thanks to the initiative of
the Central American cooperation between universities, attended
by the former president of the TAD commission of the International
Astronomical Union, Dr John Percy ,
who spoke on Education in Astronomy and investigation on variable stars.
Books and materials were donated by the AAVSO [ American Association
of Variable Star Observers ], the Astronomical Society of the Pacific,
the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada , and the University
of Toronto. He also interacted with the Guatemalan
Astronomical Association. During the course there were
interest in the supposed meteorite that fell in Honduras, Nov. 22, 1996
(Sky and Telescope, March 1997, pag. 12). Although there were
many eyewitnesses, there was not solid evidence that such event has happened.
Presently there's a participation of several university professors [University
of San Carlos of Guatemala http://www.usac.edu.gt / and
University University Francisco Marroquin, http://www.ufm.edu.gt /] in the CURCAA
and the AAAC.
| El Salvador:
At the moment the University of El Salvador
belongs to the Central American Network of Astronomy , through some
professors of the physics area. Due to the recent earthquake suffered by
this brother country, the astronomical activity has decreased, both
at academic as well at the amateur levels. The participation has been developed
through the attendance to the annual meetings of the CURCAA and the AAAC.
and Belize: due to the isolation that exists between these
countries and the rest
of Central America, it's not know by the time of this writing if some type
of development in the field of Astronomy has occurred. The present
participation of Nicaragua [University Nacional Autonoma of
Nicaragua, UNITES, http://www.unan.edu.ni/] in astronomical
activities is occurring through the attendance to the CURCAAs and the AAACs.
In 1995, former Rector of the University of Panama
Dr Gustavo García de
Paredes , signed an agreement to compromise
this institution to join the Central American Cooperation Network for the
Development of Astronomy (Rector's note No. 1088-85, June
22, 1995). Finally, after many efforts,
it was opened in this same year an area of Astronomy and Astrophysics
(AAF) in the Department of Physics of the Faculty
of Natural and Exact Sciences and Technology of the University
of Panama Octavio Méndez Pereira . As the area's coordinador
was Prof. Héctor Castillo Silva.
Panama was the host of the IV CURCAA and of the IV AAAC, in
1998, during the celebration of the Total Solar Eclipse that
took place in Jaqué, Darién
[http://cuevano.astro.ugto.mx/~ala/numeros/5/node15.html]. A brief summary of the event can be read at http://exaphysics.tripod.com/CAAstronomy/e98.html .
Recently, Dr Bernardo Fernandez , of the Research Center with Nuclear Techniques [CITEN = Centro de Investigaciones con Técnicas Nucleares], of this university, had the initiative to contact the french association astronomy amateurs, Uranoscope of l'ile of France [ firstname.lastname@example.org , http://www.obspm.fr/www/france.en.shtml , http://perso.club-internet.fr/uranos/urassoc.htm. President: Christian Bourdeille. L'Uranoscope, 7 avenue CARNOT, F77220 GRETZ-ARMAINVILLIERS FRANCE Fax: +33 (0)1 64 07 86 04 Phone: +33 (0)1 64 42 00 02 ], and the french government to establish an agreement to construct in Cerro Campana, an Astronomical Park with an Observatory, a Planetarium and a botanical Garden . The Uranoscope will serve as an adviser to look for financial support at international level and also as an adviser in the scientific part. The ANAM is consenting, along with the Mayorship of the city of Panama and the SEcretaría NAcional de Ciencia and Tecnología [SENACyT] in supporting this activity. Present Rector, Dr Julio Vallarino , already signed an agreement with the ambassador of France in Panama, Mr. Patric Bursua , so that such cooperation could be carried out in our country. Two members of the Uranoscope will attend the XXVII Central American and Caribean Course of Physics [CURCCAF] that will occur in this country, from Dec 10 to 14, 2001, to participate in this congress to explain the activities and experiences they have had in other several countries. In addition, Lorence Durret , investigator of the Observatory of Paris , financed by the government of France (throught the French Cooperation), will give two courses of Astronomy (basic and advanced) during the congress.
|The history of the development of
amateur Astronomy associations & clubs in each country appears in the
respective club's Internet webpages . Most of these associations have
had contact with the Ibero-American League of Astronomy, LIADA ( http://www.liada.net / )
- Astronomical Association of Guatemala [AAG]
President : Ing. Edgar Castro Bathen
- Star Club of Guatemala [ACG] private Club founded in 1983 by the geologist Hector Roberto Caballero Barrios.
- Eng. Edgar Castro
- Honduran Association of Astronomy [AHDA] email@example.com
(http://www.geocities.com/ahda-hon/ahda/ahda.html ) President: Nohemy Rivera (http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/9714/index.html )
- Salvadoran Association of Astronomy [ASTRO]
Current President: Luis Angel Rapalo Claudé.
September 10, 1991, although as organization existed since 1985.
Played a very important role during the Solar Eclipse of July 11,
1991, for their diffusion work reached national broadcasting covering,
through the Educative Cultural television channels 8 and 10, thanks to the
Minister of Education of the country, Licda. Cecilia Gallardo de Cano. They
are the ONLY ONES in all Central America who has managed
to make the dream of all astronomers come true. They founded an Astronomical Park: an Observatory (called
'Astronomical Observatory Dr. Prudencio Llach' ,
who was a pioneer of Astronomy in this country), a Planetarium
and Museum of Sciences in San Juan Talpa town, La Paz department.
The Observatory is of exclusive use of the association and has a Cassegrain
of 12 ", f/16 telescope, with focal length of 4800 mm, with a equatorial
type German mount. It has several members that also are professors
in scientific areas of different Salvadoran universities, reason why
the contact of this association with the academic atmosphere is good.
|- MARTIAN SOCIETY
President: Jorge Arturo Colorado . Virtual
association in Internet.
|Nicaragua and Belize|
|we don't know at the time of writing this article
if in these countries exists some amateur associations;
- CIENTEC Foundation [firstname.lastname@example.org] (http: / /www.cientec.or.cr,
) Address: PO box 8536-1000, San José, Costa
Rica. Telephone: (506) 233-7701 Fax: (506) 255-2182;
founded in 1989; organization without profit aims.
- AstroTEC Astronomy Group of the Technological Institute
of Costa Rica [email@example.com]
(http://angelfire.com/sc2/astrotec/) President: Felipe Rocks Obando [firstname.lastname@example.org]
- Club of Amateur Astronomers (http://www.angelfire.com/sc/felipemeza/astro.html);
|- AstroCharlie Carlos Hernandez [email@example.com] (http://www.astrored.net/astrocharlie/)
|- Canal Zone Astronomical
Society - CZAS/Panama Canal Astronomy Club - PCAC . According
to the "Landmarks of Amateur Astronomy" of this country, published by
Carlos Rodgers, Eng., this passion was
born with the amateur astronomer James Hess,
in 1928, when he got a 5" refractor telescope with equatorial mount,
property of the EEUU Naval Observatory, and in 1929 he founded
CZAS club on the Canal Zone (Panama). This club disappears and
in 1956, another one arised, the PCAC, in the province of Colon, which was
associated with the EEUU "Astronomical League" [AL].
- Panamanian Association of Amateur Astronomers [A.P.A.A. http://www.astropanama.org] Founded: September 15, 1983 . It has also had ample contact with the Ibero'American League of Astronomy (LIADA) . in 1986, the Panama government awards the APAA emitting, for the first time in the republic history, a stamp wiht an astronomical subject, in commemoration with 7th passage of Halley's comet, based on the astrophotography taken by Eng. Carlos Rodgers (APAA/PCAC) in 1986 above the ruins of the Cathedral Tower of "Panama La Vieja", Panama city. APAA also played an important role during the 1991 Total Solar Eclipse, with national broadcasting covering. Recently, in preparation for the XXIII CURCCAF [Central American and Caribbean Course of Physics], december 10-14, 2001, 2 members of this club [Eng. Ivan Jaen Perigault and Dr Guillermo Earl, M.D. , both former chairmen of this club] have been participating with the Physics dept. of the University of Panama, giving talks on Astronomy subjects and inviting general public to attend the nocturnal sessions of astronomical observation. In 1985-1986 we had the honor to have visit of the famous Astronomer Dr. Carl Sagan [1934-1996], during his passage through the Panama Canal in course to Chile to see Halley's Comet; he joined us together with other fans during a "Star Party" in Balboa, Canal Zone, and was in there that, for the first time, he saw the Halley! APAA has also international contacts, such as the Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society through our actual president, Aulio Hernández, who is member of this society. We have some photos of the 1998 Solar Eclipse in their website. Also we have contact with the Stockholms AmatörastronomeR -STAR- Club, Sweden , through my membership.
A great interest in establishing a collaboration between amateurs and professionals in this area exists, since the amateurs count with resources that professionals don't have . The amateurs have enough time to observe and have their own telescopes and don't have to be competing for acquiring observation time in great telescopes, reason why they can concentrate in investigating events that professionals cannot. What a serious and real collaboration would consist of? First of all, many serious amateur astronomers know that to make a quality relevant work, it's necessary to have a good equipment [telescopes, cameras or CCD, photometers, spectrometers, etc. ] and that the observations must be prolonged, under the direction of a serious program managed by professionals. Nevertheless, it is possible to establish a less ambitious programs of observation.
How the cooperation could be established? With the aid of small telescopes observations of NEOs [Near Earth Objects] can be made, Solar Astronomy, Comets can be discovered, and also a magnificent job of Teaching and Dissemination can be made , and for that purpose it is necessary to be updated with the current astronomical events that can be observed in the region and to notify to the mass media, and also by giving talks to the general public, etc. Also a cooperation with the American Asociation of Variable Stars Observers [AAVSO] (http://www.aavso.org /) can be made, in the variable star visual observation; nevertheless, it must be considered that even though the AAVSO group of visual observations is great, their reports are always compared with more precise techniques of data gathering [CCD and photoelectric photometry]. In short, the cooperation possibilities are many.
We forgot who we are. We forgot how deeply we are bound to the Universe. Routine occupies all our attention, moment after moment, station after station, epoch after epoch. We forgot that we are travelling... we travel altogether, all united, through an empty and dark immensity. We travel tied to a star that gave us life and that allows us to undertake our periodic tasks. This star drags us in its trip through the edge of our cosmic home, which as well, along with travels other galactic dwellings through the immense emptiness of the space. We are unconscious of that reality. Only few, in comparison with the many, realize that we travel alone, that our trip depends on us and on our actions. Those few, who many label as dreamers, are the cosmic conscience of our world. Of those few, only some undertake the task of awake the consciousness of the many. This awakening of the conscience is carried out by disseminating the truth. That truth makes us to open our consciences before the reality of our trip. The understanding of our position in the vast Universe can only be reached if the travellers, conscious of our trip, disclose their knowledge and teach it to the rest of the travellers.
The dissemination of such an exciting science as Astronomy requires that the discloser has certain type of abilities. Often we accuse professionals to have lost that sense of admiration and fascination for their careers, which is reflected in their manner to communicate their science, their art, to the general public. The communication is carried out, some times, in a cold and technical way. The professional lacks, sometimes, of that sense of motivation and fails when trying to inject that passion to the public who listen to him. Often this is the case, but not always. We accuse professionals to be technical and cold, nevertheless we are forgetting that originally that person, who decided to become a professional, has dedicated his life to that dream; we forget that the professional is a full time dreamer. On the other side, the professional is so deeply submerged in technical details that sometimes forget why he does it, what was his original passion.
When disclosing on Astronomy, the speaker must not stun with technical
details nor with formulas... he must transmit that motivation, that astonishment,
that fluid passion that crosses his veins, that impels him day after
day to enter in what he loves... that desire of knowing more deeply, and
that lead him through the eternal questions about the Origin and the Being...
that explosive sprouting and irrefrenable questionings whose answers seems
to be so... distant...
that understanding of why the emptiness needs to be calmed... of why that light needs to be turned on... that fascination that leaves him overwhelmed before each constellation, each star, each galaxy... that feeling of humility when, from a secret place within himself, contemplates the immense wonders of the Cosmos... that Communion that only he can feel when, in deep darkness, glimpses that white starry road that constitute our immense galactic home... that tremor... that shaking of emotion before so incommensurable beautiness... that comprehension before the infiniteness, before the smallness, before the Sacred, before the Existence itself... that Encounter that only can arise from within the Being... that lackness of words, that Universal Presence, that expansion of Conscience... then, and only then, when he knows what needs to be known, understands what needs to be understood, transmits what needs to be transmitted, only then he'll be able...
to open us... the Doors of the Universe...
Additional links :
List of emails of centralamerican professionals and amateurs who are directly involved with Astronomy in Central America [still in construction]:
LATIN AMERICAN NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER [LANIC]: