|We presented/displayed a global and summarized vision of the activities that are developed at the moment in the area of Astronomy in the region of Central America, as much at professional level as at fan level. We expose with clarity the necessity to continue the effort by the development of this science in our countries with the aid of programs of support like the Project European ALPHA, Project TWAN and North American Program TAD. We raised the work of the become fond of astronomers whose valuable aid can be used for a fast establishment of the bases on which Astronomy can lean.|
In order to have a solid base to judge the possible development of Astronomy in Central America in next the 10 years, first we must know the present reality this science in our region and our relation with the developed countries that support this branch of the knowledge. This report is not exhaustive and it only must like modest objective present/display of global way the present situation to them of Astronomy in Central America.
We already know of memory everything what it teaches the history to us of the Astronomia and why this one to played an important role in the development of the economy, the culture and the knowledge of our civilization! We know that Astronomy has given already, and continues giving, its fruits and that the developed countries have known to operate such fruits... but, what has of the underdeveloped countries? In what it benefits Astronomy to excellent Centroam√©rica?Es for the development from the countries of the region? The answer is in the future : What estan doing the great powers and countries developed as far as Astronomy? Then, How we are going away to prepare, the countries not-developed, before such challenges? Answer : with preparation, qualification, education, training! Otherwise we will continue being the slow ignorantes poor men of always, cultural and social the cheap level, manual labor low who always we have been.. our children will continue being the employees of 3ra category who are in charge of the manual laboras... we will continue being to eter employees to us of the development alcazado by others... Perhaps as individual countries we did not prune to reach great goals, but if a union for a cooperative support settles down, results can be obtained faster... The same nature of Astronomy forces it to use technology very sophisticated outpost and [ communications satellites, opto-electronic networks of computers, Internet, apparatuses, etc. ], which is an advantage since it allows to enable to scientists in the knowledge and use of such technologies, which are applicable in ALL the areas of the theoretical and practical knowledge. The benefits revert to the country in education form, which allows, as well, to transmit such knowledge and to enable more professionals!
In addition, We are not Single! ... Programs of aid of countries developed towards Central America exist... the support is real [ 1 ] ... this can be taken advantage of and be exploded to the maximum. This opens the doors to us to many opportunities. First Astronomy, soon other areas of science and technology. The creation of a scientific center advanced [ a radio telescope, for example ] in, at least, 1 Central American country can open the doors towards more investment on the part of other developed countries! This type of investment soon lays the way to investments of another type, more orientedas to the economic thing! Why underdeveloped the foreign investors are cautious when investing in paises? Indeed by the subdevelopment... when these investors observe that reliable people as the scientists of developed countries invest in science, that will send the message to them of which Central America is " stable " and that the corruption and bad governmental handlings have diminished to such degree that is relatively safe to canalize investments towards these countries; they are safer to invest... are good candidates to invest! It is question of common sense: an investor will prefer to invest in a country whose level of intelligence and knowledge is high; the education provides the knowledge which aid to develop intelligence, intelligence attracts more intelligence, and an investor will trust his money to intelligent people and with knowledge, since this will cause that their investment is used effectively, making him make more money...
Many think that Astronomy in Central America cannot be done. Nevertheless, the reality is another one. We already have many things that before nonteniamos: specialized bookstores, networks of computers and their power of calculation, Internet, scientific collaboration with other astronomers of developed countries, exist the support to obtain posgrados in Astronomy, can be looked for and to obtain economic aid for trips to conferences and also http://cuevano.astro.ugto.mx/~ala/numeros/5/node20.html exists the videoconferencias [ ], exists support of international organizations dedicated to the development of this science in underdeveloped countries, etc. Then, why not to support more to those than they want to work for the development of this science? Astronomy can be used like an average one to make contact with the general public. The fascination by the aspects and characteristics of the outer space is a powerful magnet that can attract people of diverse areas; such situation must be operated for asi to approach the public but towards science in general. The same nature of Astronomy forces it to depend on high technology and, therefore, it can exist an interaction between small and medium industries in areas like the electronics, optics, engineering of presici√≥n, etc. Investigation can be done of high level in Astronomy using the immense astronomical data bases 2 [ ] that exist in Internet. It is enough with buying a software of suitable processing to make the work, and even there are many softwares free in this network that are used for the mining and analysis of data. No longer there is excuse!
At the present time a concerted effort is being made continue with the
program of established development. In the 2001 it was carried out I
SAW CENTRAL AMERICAN COURSE OF ASTRONOMIA and ASTROFISICA [ CURCAA
and I SAW meeting of
the ASSEMBLY OF CENTRAL ASTRONOMOS and ASTROFISICOS
OF AMERICA [ AAAC ] in Costa Rica [ http://www.astro.unah.hondunet.net/Poacs-actCA.html
The present president of the AAAC is Astrophisicist Dr
Jorge P√°ez (Costa Rica), Professor
funge like Secretary of this organization. The following course, 2002,
will be possibly in Honduras. In the AAAC the possibilities of scholarships
for Masters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Mexico and Doctorado in
Costa Rica and Mexico were discussed; the possibility of the integration
of the Central American Network and of making of this form investigation
projects, in collaboration with other centers and the possibility that
Iraz√ļ Volcano, in Costa Rica, can be the place of the future Astronomical
Observatory To pave of Iraz√ļ. The event was sponsored by the
International Astronomical Union [ IAU ],
Space Agency [ THAT ], the O.A.S. and UNESCO
The Technical Aspect
The area of Astronomy and Astrophysics has come developing in the Central American countries to a rate every greater time. The fort impulse that is receiving Astronomy and the Astrophysics at Central American level must to thanks to several Programs of Development [ R & D ]:
The Program ALPHA is born thanks to an initiative of cooperation economic, scientific and technological between the European Community and the countries of Latin America , with the intention of improving the potential of growth of our region. This program arises from the experience of the European Community in the accomplishment of networks of cooperation of similar nature ( ERASMUS, MED-CAMPUS, TEMPUS, COMETT ). ALPHA tries to help to eliminate the deficiencies existences and to less surpass the inequalities and imbalances between the countries of both regions, improving the academic, scientific and technological potential of the developed countries. Also it is persecuted to develop the academic cooperation by means of networks of institutions of superior education (Universities and Research centers) of Europe and Latin America, as much at educative level as at level of development of joint investigations. The Central American countries that comprise of the Program ALPHA jeopardized to implement an Agreement of Cooperation for Formation of Astronomers and Astrophisicists for the Central American Isthmus . The European Coordinator for this project was the Dr Jaime Zamorano , of the Department of Astronomy of the Physical Faculty of Sciences of the Complutensian University of Madrid. Lamentably, the required financing could not be able to remove ahead this project and one of the reasons that it was not obtained that so necessary economic support was that the sufficient enabled human resources did not exist like so that the investment it was productive. Another reason but for which we must make an effort to us to more create such human resources in the area of Astronomy! [www.ucm.es/info/vicrint/UCM/International.htm , www.ucm.es/info/Astrof/jaz.html ].
The development in the Central American countries has been the following one:
Guatemala: In 1997, April 21, a course in Guatemala de Astronom√≠a occurred
- Star Club of Guatemala [ ACG ] private Club founded on 1983, by the geologist Hector Roberto Horsemen Districts .
- Ing. Edgar Castro Bathen [
Ex-president of the AAG [ 1995-1996 ] and the ACG [ 1994 ]. Creator of the first Central American virtual bulletin of Astronomy " the Cyberastr√≥nomo " [ email@example.com ], that is distributed by Internet to the partners whom they love to acquire it [ are possible to be found the last numbers in the mirror: http://exaphysics.tripod.com/Fysik2.html ]. Also creative of society SPICA, Society For Impulso and the Conservation of the Astronomia , virtual society of all the fans to astronomy in Central America [ http://exaphysics.tripod.com/CAAstronomy/Cyberas66.htm ].
- ASSOCIATION OF NATURAL STUDIES, GEOGRAFICOS AND ASTRONOMICOS
OF GUATEMALA [ A.E.N.G.A. ]
16 Av. " To " 3-10, Zone 6, CD. of Guatemala. Tel. (502) 2881102 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, http://galeon.hispavista.com/aenga/index
- MARTIAN SOCIETY [ email@example.com
/ ) President:
Jorge Arturo Colorado .
Virtual association in Internet.
of AstroTEC Astronomy of the Technological Institute of Costa Rica [
President: Felipe Rocks Obando [ firstname.lastname@example.org ]
- Club of Fans to Astronomy ( http://www.angelfire.com/sc/felipemeza/astro.html );
- AstroCharlie Carlos
- Panamanian Association of Fans to Astronomy [ A.P.A.A. ] Foundation: September 15, 1983 ( http://www.astropanama.org ), which has also had ample contact with Latin American Liga of Astronomy (ROLLED) of Spain and Latino America. The Government of Panama awards to the APAA when emitting for the first time a stamp of astronomical subject, in commemoration with 7ma passage of the Comet Halley, cradle in the astrofotograf√≠a taken by Ing. Carlos Rodgers (APAA / PCAC) in 1986 on the ruins of the Tower of the Cathedral of " Panama the Old one " in the City of Panama. Also a paper important played during the Total Eclipse To pave in 1991, with national cover. In preparation for XXIII the CURCCAF [ Central American Course and of the Caribbean de F√≠sica ], in Panama, 2 members of this club [ Ing. Ivan Jaen Perigault, Dr Guillermo Ear to him M.D. , both ex-presidents of this club ] will participate in this congress giving to char them on subjects of Astronomia and will invite to the assistants to nocturnal exits of observation. In 1985-1986 we had the honor to have famous Astronomer Dr Carl Sagan [ 1934-1996 ], that during its passage through the Panama Canal course to Chile to see the Comet Halley, was united to the other fans during a " Star Party " in Balboa, Zone of the Channel, city of Panama, and was in there that for the first time vi√≥ to Halley.
A little history on Central American events indicates to us that become fond of astronomy is very active in our region. Ing. Edgar Catro Bathen, provides the following information to us. Thanks to an announcement published in the Astronomy magazine , the directive members of the ACG and the HANDLE decided to have an encounter the 1 of May of 1993, in San Salvador, in which they interchanged opinions and the idea was conceived to make a meeting of astronomers become fond of at Central American level. They met more than 70 originating people of 4 Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Panama. Also astronomer occurred to the attendance of fam√≥so Stephen James √ďmeara [ event that he published in the magazine Sky & Telescope, Mayo1994, pp. 99 ]. In this meeting he was discovered that almost all the Central American associations had their beginnings around the years 80's, but grew during the arrival of the comet Halley in the 1985-86 and total Sun eclipse in 1991. The PECAA ( First Central American Encounter of Become fond of Astronomers ), was in November 5, 1994, El Salvador, to enjoy 2 days of Astronomy. In this occasion, a 42% more of attendance than in the previous encounter were obtained. II the Central American Congress of Associations of Fans to Astronom√≠a ( II-CCAAA ) was also a success. They also attended Tippy D'Auria , founder of the Winter Star Party de Miami, the U.S.A. ; Robert Benward of the Astronomical Society of Long Island , and Stephen J. √ďmeara of the U.S.A., that gave a talk on the shock of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. This congress was important because it seted out here to celebrate the Day of the Become fond of Astronomer ( 6 of July ) every year, to give a recognition to the best astronomical fan works in the next congresses and the creation of the Federation of Astronomy of Central America seted out , thing that not yet has occurred. Due to the Mitchel Hurricane and to its devastating pass by Honduras and El Salvador, the fan encounter have had to be suspended temporarily, but it hopes that in coming years the activity is started again. Also contact with Carolyn and Eugene has stayed Shoemaker , and David Levy [ http://exaphysics.tripod.com/CAAstronomy/Cyberas48.htm ]
A great interest in establishing a collaboration between fans and professionals in this area exists, since the fans count on resources that do not have the professionals. The fans have time to observe and of own telescopes and they do not have to be competing acquiring time of observation in the great telescopes, reason why they can be dedicated to investigate events that the professionals cannot. Of what a serious and real collaboration would consist? First that everything, many become fond of astronomers serious knows that to make a work of quality and importance, [ is necessary to have a good equipment telescopes, cameras or CCD, photometers, spectrometers, etc. ] and that the observation must be prolonged under the direction of a program serious and dirido by professionals. Nevertheless, it is possible to establish a less ambitious program of observation.
How it would be possible to be cooperated? With the aid of small telescopes observations of NEOs can be made, can be made Astronomy Solar, Comets can be discovered, and also a magnificent work of Spreading can be made , and for it it is necessary to be to the current of the astronomical events that can be observed in the region and to notify mass media, and to give to char them to the public, etc. Also of Variable Stars Observers can be cooperated with the American Asociation [ AAVSO ] ( http://www.aavso.org / ) in the visual variable star observation, nevertheless it is due to consider of which even though the group of visual observation of the AAVSO is great, their reports are compared with more precise techniques [ CCD and photoelectric photometry ]. In short, the cooperation possibilities are many.
We forgot of those who we are. We forgot how deeply we are bound to the Universe. Routine happening occupies all our attention, moment after moment, station after station, time after time. We forgot that we are travelling... we traveled altogether, all united ones, through an empty and dark immensity. We traveled tied a star who gives life us and that allows us to undertake our periodic tasks. Such star drags to us in his trip through the edge of our cosmic home, which as well, along with travels other galactic dwellings through the immense emptiness of the space. We are unconscious of that reality. Single few, in comparison with many, are those that realize of which we traveled single. On which our trip depends on us and of our actions. Those few, to those who many label as so6nadores, are the cosmic conscience of our world. Of those few, single some undertake the task of conscientizar to many. The conscientizaci√≥n is carried out by means of the spreading of the truth. That truth that makes open our consciences us before the reality of our trip. The understanding of our position in the vast Universe only can be reached if the travellers, conscious of our trip, disclose their knowledge and teach to the rest of the travellers.
The spreading of a as exciting science as Astronomy requires of which the publishing one has certain type of abilities. Often we accused the professionals that there are lost that sense of admiration and fascination by his race, which is reflected in its way to communicate its science, its art, to a general public. The communication is carried out, some times, of a cold and technical way. To the professional him lack, sometimes, that sense of motivation and fails when trying to inject that passion to the public who listens to it. Often this it is the case, but not always. We too much accused the professionals to be technicians and cold, nevertheless we are forgetting that originally that person, who decided to become professional, has dedicated her life to that dream; one forgets to us that the professional is a so6nador of complete time. Of his side, the professional is so deeply submerged in technical details that sometimes forget why it does, which was its original passion.
publishing one of Astronomy does not have to stun with technical details
nor with formulas... must transmit that motivation, that astonishment,
that flu√≠da passion that crosses its veins, that day impels after day
to enter in which loves... that desire knowing deeply the more, and
that lead through the eternal questions on the Origin and the Being...
that explosive sprouting and irrefrenable of cuestionamientos whose answers
are descried so... distant...
that understanding of why that emptiness needs to be calmed... of why that light needs to be ignited... that fascination that leaves it overwhelmed before each constellation, each star, each galaxy... that feeling of humility when, from a secret place within if, that Comuni√≥n contemplates to the immense wonders of the Cosmos..., that single it can feel when, in the deep dark, glimpses that white star way that forms our immense galactic home... that tremor... that to so shake of emotion before incommensurable beauty... that compression before the infinite thing, before the small thing, the Asylum, the same Existence... that encounter that only can be born the conscience... asi, and only asi, when he manages to know what he needs to be well-known, to understand what needs to be understood, to transmit what needs to be transmitted, single then will be able... to open... the Doors to us of the Universe...
Lista de correos electr √≥ nicos de profesionales y aficionados centroamericanos que est √° n directamente involucrados con la Astronom √≠ a en Centro Am √© rica:
AMERICAN NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER